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Revised Computer Science Resource Center: Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence or AI is machines’ intelligence and the discipline of computer science that seeks to create it. The term was coined in 1956 by John McCarthy; he described it as the engineering and the science of creating intelligent machines. The goal of artificial intelligence is the design of machines such that they are able to perceive their environment and then subsequently perform actions that maximize their chances of success. Artificial intelligence research is split up into subfields that have sprung up around certain institutions, particular individuals and their work, and the solution to particular problems.

Various Approaches in AI

There are numerous approaches to artificial intelligence that are not universally agreed upon. Different approaches relate to the various ways that artificial intelligence is viewed by certain groups. For instance, there is a question mark about whether this science should copy natural intelligence, by studying psychology or neurology, or simply study synthetic intelligence. Other areas of disagreement center around how to describe artificial intelligence. For example, there is a school of thought that explores whether to describe artificial intelligence in terms of simple principles like logic. A competing school of thought on how to describe artificial intelligence lies in first solving a sizable number of mostly unrelated problems.

Cybernetics

Statistical

Symbolic

Sub-Symbolic

Obstacles For Researchers and Scientists

The issue behind simulating or creating artificial intelligence has been categorized into various numbers of particular sub-problems. These are made up of specific characteristics and traits that scientists intend an intelligent system to present. People perform problem-solving actions by using faster and intuitive decisions, as opposed to machines, which rely on step-by-step and systemic processes. Researchers have struggled to improve this problem with artificial intelligence, and they are somewhat making progress with regards to this sub-symbolic problem. Another problem scientists face is the issue of natural language processing, where machines are not yet capable of obtaining knowledge of how people read and understand languages on their own. The following traits have enjoyed the most attention.

Deductive Reasoning and Problem Solving

Creativity

General Intelligence

Knowledge Representation

Learning Abilities

Motion

Natural Language Processing

Perception

Planning

Social Intelligence

Methods, Theories and Tools in AI

In research over the last 50 years, the field of artificial intelligence has come up with a lot of tools to provide answers to the most challenging problems in the field of computer science. A lot of the dilemmas in artificial intelligence can be solved simply by searching through the various, plausible solutions in search and optimization efforts. Logic figures prominently in artificial intelligence research, whether it is sentential logic, propositional logic or first-order logic. Some of the most general of these methods are reviewed below.

Control Theory

Classifiers and Statistical Methods

Neural Networks

Programming Languages (relating to AI)

Search and Optimization

Different AI Philosophies

Artificial intelligence is both an inspiration and a challenge for philosophy. This has to do with the premise of artificial intelligence supposedly being able to recreate the functions of the mind. There are many questions in the field of artificial intelligence. One question is if there are limits to the intelligence of machines. Researchers keep asking if there is a fundamental difference between the intelligence in machines and humans. Whether a machine can possess both consciousness and a mind is another subject of controversy within artificial intelligence. Some of the more influential responses are presented below.

Dartmouth Proposal

Godel's Incompleteness Theorem

Newell and Simon's Physical Symbol System Hypothesis

Turing Test Approach

Searle's AI Hypothesis